The town Sochi stretches for 145 km along the Black sea coast of the Caucasus in Krasno­ dar region. The area of the town is 3505 square km. The popula­tion is about 400 thousand peo­ ple. The town consists of four administrative districts: Adler, Khosta, Central, Lazarevskoe. 

The territory of Sochi started being opened up 400- 350 thousand years ago in the epoch of early paleolithe, and played an appreciable role in antique and medieval history. A lot of archeological relics have been discovered and partially examined here: caves, open sites, settlements of prehis torical people, dolmens, ruins of fortresses, temples and burial grounds, burual mounds.

Starting with the second half of the XVI century the Cau­ casus turned into the arena of Russia's fight with Turkey and Percia. This fight ended up in 1829 with the signing of An driapol peaceful treatment, ac­ cording to which , the Black sea coast from the mouth of the Kuban river till the fort of St. Ni kiolai (to the south of town Poti) became the territory of Russia. During the Caucasian war in the 30-s of the XIX century, the Black sea coast line, consisting of the shore forts for guarding the coast, was formed. The fol­ lowing forts.- of St. Spirit (Adler), Aleksandria (Sochi), Lazarev's fort (Lazarevskoe), Golovinsky (Golovinka) and others, - were built by the Russian troops on the territory of Sochi. The ruins of the forts walls were pre­served, and now they are the historical monuments.

On April, 21 1838 the mili­tary landed troops laid the fort Aleksandria in honour of the Empress's birthday on the height, at the mouth of the So­ chi river. That place became the first Russian settlement, located in the centre of modern Sochi.

The town got its present name « Sochi» in 1896 after the name of the river and of the place of the ubykhs tribal na­ tion, who had inhabited this ter­ritory till 1864. The examining and exploration of the Caucasus Black sea coast curative factors started after the end of the Cau­ casian war in 1864. The process of the land division was passing very quickly at that period on the Black sea coast. The gov­ernment was not able to solve the problem of the industrial development of the region, and it was possible to cope with it on the basis of the private capi­tal only. Russian bourgeoisie, in its turn, felt benefit from this region. New opportunities of investing the capital and of in­creasing the profit appeared here.

A villa «Vera» was built in N.N.Mamontov's estate in 1872. This building can be considered the first construction of a dacha type on the territory of Big So­ chi . Then some decline in dacha building was observed. The ac­ tivity of the special commission on exploring the Black sea coast from Novorossiissk to Sukhumi, which had started its work in 1898, was an important page in the history of the development of the resort Sochi. The profes­ sors A..I.Voeikov, F.I.Pasternatsky and a mountain engineer A.V.Sergeev were included into the commission. The report of the commission was presented at the I All-Russian congress on climatology, hydrology and balneology in Petersburg in 1898. The reports said, that due to the natural richness of the Black sea coast, the foundation of the bal neological and climatic resorts was quite possible. However, considerable sums, the govern­mental support and the coac­ tion of the people, experienced in this matter, were demanded.

The rich land of the Black sea coast attracted manufactur­ers and business owners more and more at the end of the XIX- beginning of the XX centuries. According to the Resolution of May, 23 1896 the Black sea district, which had been includ­ed into the Kuban region, was separated as an independent Black sea province. It was the smallest of all Russia's prov­ inces (6455 square versts). Si­multaneously, the trusteeship of Sochi area was reformed into the district. The borders of Sochi district stretched from the Dederukai river (nowadays- Lazarevsky district) till Sukhumisection (Gagra).

The borders have been ex­ panded at the cost of Sukhumi district since 1901. Since that time Sochi district occupied the territory between the sea and the Main Caucasian Ridge from the Shakhee river in the north till the Bzyb river in the south, including Gagra. By the same resolution (of May, 23 1896) Dakhovsky settlement was re named into settlement Sochi after the name of the tribal community of the ubykhs «so- atshee», who had inhabited this territory till 1864. Since May/I 1898 settlement Sochi was in­ cluded into the list of the settle­ments with the simplified public governing, i.e. it had the status of an urban type settlement . The administration consisted of a headman, his assistants and of 12 plenipotentiaries, elected by the citizens.

Sochi got the status of a town only in July, 31 1917 af­ ter including the suburbs of Vereshchaginskaya, Khludovs- kaya, Katkovo-Leontievskaya dachas, as well as the private people estates-, the Kostarevs's, the Tolokonnikovys's, the Khudekovs's and others, into the urban area of the settlement. There were big private estates of the earl S.D.Sheremetiev, S.I.Kovalevskaya, of the Great prince Mikhail, the tsar's estate «Dagomys», etc.

An architectural aspect with peculiarities and originality, typ­ical only for the seaside resort towns and distinguishing them from other provincial regions, was formed in Sochi at the end of the XlX-the beginning of the XX centuries.

The main principle of a town-constructing approach, when building Sochi, was aimed at the creating a resort as a gar­den-town. Architecture had the features of pavillion-like build­ ings, typical for the park ensem­ bles, where the main architects' goal was achieving harmony of the architecture with natural landscape. The parks comprised the particular pride of Sochi health-resort town.

The architecture of the buildings was accomplished in strict harmony with the environ­ment and had specific features of its time. The buildings and constructions, erected at that period, have been attracting the attention of the inhabitants and of the guests since then.

Sochi Fine Arts Museum (the former building of the Plenipotentiary Central Elective Committee (CEC) of the USSR in Sochi-Matsesta resort), the Zimny (Winter) theatre, Ord zhonikidze sanatorium - are the monuments of architecture and town building of the republican grade.

Natural setting, environ­ment and climatic conditions of Sochi's location are really unique. In fact, a health-resort Sochi in a body is a part of the State Natural National Park, and a part of Sochi has been includ­ ed in structure of the Caucasian biospheric reserve not without reason.

90 % of territory of Sochi are mountains and foothills of the Western Caucasus covered by boundless deciduous forests. Because of a soft climate, plants from all parts of globe are col­lected here.

The altitude of highest mountains is more than 3000 m above sea level. Only here you've got an opportunity for simultaneous sun-bathing, sea baths taking, and for mountain skiing.

A land along-shore the Big Sochi, from settlement Magri in northwest, up to the river Psou on border with Abkhazia squeezes through gaps between the Black Sea and piedmonts of the Western Caucasus.

Warm coastal sea cur­ rents, glen winds and breezes render softening influence on a climate, creating surplus of a moisture under high summer temperature.

The network of mountain ridges protects coast from se­vere dry continental winds and creates a unique subtropical mi­ croclimate in this territory.

The Olimpic Sochi

The town Sochi has been chosen the capital of the XXII winter Olympic and of the XI Paraolympic winter games 2014 The period of holding the XXII winter Olympic games in Sochi is February,7-23 2014. The period of holding winter XI Paraolympic games in Sochi is March, 7-16. On the 4-th of July 2007 the committee-declarant «Sochi-2014» won at the 119-th session of the International Olympic Committee in Guatemala along with the active participation of the sportsmen, politicians and the president of the Russian Federation. It is the second time, that the Olympic games will be held in Russia after the Olympic games of 1980 in Moscow, and they are the first winter Olympic games in Sochi 2014 in the history of Russia.

This grand victory will undoubtedly affect different aspects of the social and political life of our country. In fact, these are the first winter Olympic games in the history of Russia, and that gives the extra public response not only by means of the bright patriotic mood of the people and the sense of the wild national pride for the right to hold the Games on their own land, but also a powerful impulse in developing sport, transport, tourist infrastructure and, of course, the strongest rise of the masses'interest in sport. Russia has sport achievements to be proud of, especially in winter kinds of sport. Sochi 2014 is going to open new prospects not only for Krasnodarsky region, but for all Russia . Great responsibility, which the competitions organizers have faced, is nothing, compared with the tasks, the sport couches have to solve clearly, and compared with the energy, that our sportsmen are already spending at their exhausting trainings-their way to the victory. The great interest of the audience is caused not only by the coming contests, where thousands of like- minded people will come to be fans of our sportsmen, but by the very idea of supporting Russian sport on the former high level. The young generation of still unknown sportsmen is receiving an extra stimula for training, so as, first, to be like and then-to surpass the present Olympic stars. A new page in Russian sport is being already opened due to the inexhaustible enthusiasm store of the couches and Olympic sportsmen, who are ready to do impossible things for the sake of the victory; and due to the enthusiasm of the young professionals and fans.

However, not only the moral component, but also the active political and financial support of the sport sector in general by the government and investors, play a considerable role in all this. Sport financing in Russia is making guite new turnovers, and the government together with some private people are starting a handwheel, which is going to affect in a non-stop way home sport achievements, thus making all details of the thoroughly tuned mechanism move. Holding the Olympic games 2014 in Sochi is one of the key historical events, that greatly influences the country economy as well as the spirit of its people and their mind. The nation, famous for its craving for sport-is healthy and strong both in body and mind, and sport is an art of winning a victory and-at the same time-is hard work.